What is MOD REVIVAL? What does MOD REVIVAL mean? MOD REVIVAL meaning, definition & explanation

What is MOD REVIVAL? What does MOD REVIVAL mean? MOD REVIVAL meaning, definition & explanation

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What is MOD REVIVAL? What does MOD REVIVAL mean? MOD REVIVAL meaning – MOD REVIVAL definition – MOD REVIVAL explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

The mod revival was a music genre and subculture that started in England in 1978 and later spread to other countries (to a lesser degree). The mod revival’s mainstream popularity was relatively short, although its influence has lasted for decades. The mod revival post-dated a Teddy Boy revival, and mod revivalists sometimes clashed with Teddy Boy revivalists, skinhead revivalists, casuals, punks and rival gang members.

The late 1970s mod revival was led by the band The Jam, who had adopted a stark mod look and mixed the energy of punk with the sound of 1960s mod bands. The mod revival was a conscious effort to harken back to an earlier generation in terms of style. In the early 1980s in the UK, a mod revival scene influenced by the original 1960s mod subculture developed.

The late 1970s mod revival combined musical and cultural elements of the 1970s pub rock, punk rock and new wave music genres with influences from 1960s mod and beat music bands such as The Who, Small Faces and The Kinks. The revival was largely spurred on by the band The Jam, who had adopted a stark mod look and mixed the energy of punk with the sound of 1960s mod bands. Their debut album In the City (1977), mixed R&B standards with originals modelled on The Who’s early singles. They confirmed their status as the leading mod revival band with their third album All Mod Cons (1978), on which Paul Weller’s song-writing drew heavily on the British-focused narratives of the Kinks. The revival was also spurred on by small concerts at venues such as the Cambridge and Hop Poles Hotels, and Howard Hall Enfield, the Wellington, Waterloo Road, London, and the Bridge House in Canning Town. In 1979, the film Quadrophenia, which romanticised the original 1960s mod subculture, widened the impact and popularity of the mod revival across the UK. The original mod revival fanzine, Maximum Speed started in 1979 and spawned other home-produced fanzines from then until the mid-to-late 1980s.

Pub rock bands like Red Beans and Rice, The Little Roosters, The Inmates, Nine Below Zero and Eddie and the Hot Rods, became major acts in the growing mod revival scene in London. Other bands grew up to feed the desire for mod music, often combining the music of 1960s mod groups with elements of punk music, including The Lambrettas, The Merton Parkas, Squire, and Purple Hearts. These acts managed to develop cult followings and some had pop hits, before the revival petered out in the early 1980s.

Another British tradition that returned at the same time was the penchant for members of youth subcultures to go to seaside resorts on bank holidays and fight members of other subcultures. This originated in the early 1960s with the mods and rockers fighting each other at places such as Brighton. The phenomenon returned in 1969 through to 1970 with skinheads fighting Teddy boys and bikers. In 1977 it returned yet again, with punks fighting Teddy Boys at Margate, and revival skinheads fighting Teddy boys, bikers and rockers at Southend and Margate. This carried on until 1978. In 1979 and 1980, the resorts became major battlegrounds on bank holidays for young skinheads and mods together against Teddy boys and rockers. Some of the main resorts involved were Margate, Brighton, Southend, Clacton, Hastings and Scarborough.

Paul Weller broke up The Jam in 1982 and formed The Style Council, who abandoned most of the punk rock elements to adopt music much more based in R&B and early soul.

In the mid-1980s, there was a brief mod revival centered on bands such as The Prisoners, Makin’ Time and the Gents. Fanzines following on from Maximum Speed – such as Mission Impossible, Patriotic, Roadrunner, Extraordinary Sensations and Chris Hunt’s Shadows & Reflections – helped generate further interest in this stage of the mod revival. Another main player in the 1980s UK mod revival was Eddie Piller, who went on to develop the acid jazz movement of the late 1980s.

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What is NEW HOLLYWOOD? What does NEW HOLLYWOOD mean? NEW HOLLYWOOD meaning & explanation

What is NEW HOLLYWOOD? What does NEW HOLLYWOOD mean? NEW HOLLYWOOD meaning & explanation





What is NEW HOLLYWOOD? What does NEW HOLLYWOOD mean? NEW HOLLYWOOD meaning – NEW HOLLYWOOD definition – NEW HOLLYWOOD explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

New Hollywood, sometimes referred to as the “American New Wave”, usually refers to a movement in American film history from the mid-to-late 1960s (Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate) to the early 1980s (Heaven’s Gate, One from the Heart) when a new generation of young filmmakers came to prominence in United States, influencing the types of films produced, their production and marketing, and the way major studios approached film-making. In New Hollywood films, the film director, rather than the studio, took on a key authorial role. The definition of New Hollywood varies, depending on the author, with some of them defining it as a movement and others as a period. The span of the period is also a subject of debate, as well as its integrity, as some authors, such as Thomas Schatz, argue that the New Hollywood consist of several different movements. The films made in this movement are stylistically characterized in that their narrative often strongly deviated from classical norms.

After the demise of the studio system and the rise of television, the commercial success of films was diminished. The “New Hollywood” period, spanning the mid-1960s and early 1980s, was a period of revival.

Following the Paramount Case (which ended block booking and ownership of theater chains by film studios) and the advent of television, both of which severely weakened the traditional studio system, Hollywood studios initially used spectacle to retain profitability. Technicolor developed a far more widespread use, while widescreen processes and technical improvements, such as CinemaScope, stereo sound and others, such as 3-D, were invented in order to retain the dwindling audience and compete with television. However, these were generally unsuccessful in increasing profits. By 1957 Life magazine called the 1950s “the horrible decade” for Hollywood.

The 1950s and early 1960s saw a Hollywood dominated by musicals, historical epics, and other films that benefited from the larger screens, wider framing and improved sound. Hence, as early as 1957, the era was dubbed a “New Hollywood”. However, audience share continued to dwindle, and had reached alarmingly low levels by the mid-1960s. Several costly flops, including Tora! Tora! Tora!, and Hello, Dolly!, and failed attempts to replicate the success of The Sound of Music, put great strain on the studios.

By the time the baby boomer generation was coming of age in the 1960s, ‘Old Hollywood’ was rapidly losing money; the studios were unsure how to react to the much changed audience demographics. The change in market during the period went from a middle aged high school educated audience in the mid 1960s, to a younger, more affluent, college-educated demographic: by the mid 1970s, 76% of all movie-goers were under 30, 64% of whom had gone to college. European films, both arthouse and commercial (especially the Commedia all’italiana, the French New Wave, and the Spaghetti Western) and Japanese cinema were making a splash in United States — the huge market of disaffected youth seemed to find relevance and artistic meaning in movies like Michelangelo Antonioni’s Blowup, with its oblique narrative structure and full-frontal female nudity.

The desperation felt by studios during this period of economic downturn, and after the losses from expensive movie flops, led to innovation and risk-taking, allowing greater control by younger directors and producers. Therefore, in an attempt to capture that audience which found a connection to the “art films” of Europe, the studios hired a host of young filmmakers (many of whom were mentored by Roger Corman) and allowed them to make their films with relatively little studio control. This, together with the breakdown of the Production Code in 1966 and the new ratings system in 1968 (reflecting growing market segmentation) set the scene for New Hollywood.

This new generation of Hollywood filmmaker was predominantly counterculture-bred, and, most importantly, from the point of view of the studios, young, therefore able to reach the youth audience they were losing. This group of young filmmakers—actors, writers and directors—dubbed the “New Hollywood” by the press, briefly changed the business from the producer-driven Hollywood system of the past.

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What is HIPSTER? What does HIPSTER mean? HIPSTER meaning, definition & explanation

What is HIPSTER? What does HIPSTER mean? HIPSTER meaning, definition & explanation





What is HIPSTER? What does HIPSTER mean? HIPSTER meaning – HIPSTER pronunciation – HIPSTER definition – HIPSTER explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

The hipster subculture is composed of affluent or middle class youth who reside primarily in gentrifying neighborhoods. It is broadly associated with indie and alternative music, a varied non-mainstream fashion sensibility vintage and thrift store-bought clothing, generally progressive political views, organic and artisanal foods, and alternative lifestyles. The subculture typically consists of white millennials living in urban areas. It has been described as a “mutating, trans-Atlantic melting pot of styles, tastes and behavior”.

The term in its current usage first appeared in the 1990s and became particularly prominent in the late 2000s and early 2010s, being derived from the term used to describe earlier movements in the 1940s. Members of the subculture typically do not self-identify as hipsters, and the word hipster is often used as a pejorative to describe someone who is pretentious, overly trendy or effete. Some scholars contend that the contemporary hipster is a “marketplace myth” that has a complex, two-way relationship with the worldview and value system of indie-oriented consumers.

In Rob Horning’s April 2009 article “The Death of the Hipster” in PopMatters, he states that the hipster might be the “embodiment of postmodernism as a spent force, revealing what happens when pastiche and irony exhaust themselves as aesthetics.” In a New York Times editorial, Mark Greif states that the much-cited difficulty in analyzing the term stems from the fact that any attempt to do so provokes universal anxiety, since it “calls everyone’s bluff”.

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What is ROCKISM? What does ROCKISM mean? ROCKISM meaning, definition & explanation

What is ROCKISM? What does ROCKISM mean? ROCKISM meaning, definition & explanation





What is ROCKISM? What does ROCKISM mean? ROCKISM meaning – ROCKISM definition – ROCKISM explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

Rockism is a loosely defined pejorative referring to perceived biases in 20th-century popular music criticism, particularly that rock music – or certain fields of rock music – was inherently superior, especially when compared to producer-driven genres like disco, R&B and hip-hop. Coined in 1981 by English rock musician Pete Wylie with his Race Against Rockism campaign, the term was used humorously by self-described “anti-rockist” critics in the British press. “Rockists” may also refer to people who regard rock music as the normative state of popular music.

The term was not generally used outside the confines of small music magazines until the mid 2000s, partly due to the exponential increase in bloggers who used it more seriously in analytical debate. In the 2000s, poptimism (or popism) represented a critical reassessment of pop music, and in the 2010s, it supplanted rockism as the prevailing ideology in popular musical criticism. Opponents of poptimist discourse have criticized the movement, believing that it has resulted in certain pop stars being prevented from negative reviews as part of an effort to maintain a consensus of uncritical excitement.

During the 1960s and 1970s, magazines like Rolling Stone and Creem laid the foundation for popular music criticism in an attempt to make popular music worthy of study. Some of these formative critics suggested that enduring pop music art was made by singer-songwriters using traditional rock instruments on long-playing albums, and that pop hits reside on a lower aesthetic plane, a source of “guilty pleasure”.

“Rockist” was coined in 1981 when English rock musician Pete Wylie announced his Race Against Rockism campaign, as former NME writer Paul Morley remembers:

… one or two music journalists writing in the one or two music magazines that existed then were very pleased. I was one of them, and was using the term “rockist” the minute after I read Wylie say it. … If the idea of rockism confused you, and you lazily thought Pink Floyd were automatically better than Gang of Four, and that good music had stopped with punk, you were a rockist and you were wrong. … it’s got something to do with a) the difference between Springsteen and Beefheart, albums and singles, intelligence and stupidity, glitter and denim, and shaky notions of authenticity and artificiality; b) being able to listen to Nick Drake and Christina Aguilera with the same levels of intensity; c) how rock groups hold their guitars and what they do with their legs as they hold their guitars; d) Q magazine, which turned hardcore rockist values into a glossy magazine; e) the fact that Franz Ferdinand are achingly nostalgic for anti-rockism but are themselves intrinsically rockist.

Anti-rockism was always violently pro-pop, largely because we original campaigning anti-rockists had been given such a tough time at school for liking Bowie and Bolan and not ELP and Led Zep.

Regarding the definition, music writer Ned Raggett noted: “Every article, every discussion, anything which involves the word seems to get bogged down or get taken apart in ways which prevent there from being any consensus.” Accordingly, some people have used rockism as a polemical label to identify and critique a cluster of beliefs and assumptions in music criticism. Rockism is therefore not a connotatively neutral term, according to Raggett: “You’re not going to find anyone arguing FOR any time soon, or at least coming out and saying so—but that’s precisely because of the terms of the discourse.” Popmatters’ Robert Loss wrote that “traditionalism” describes the policing of the present with the past, making it a better word for “rockism”. Design critic and indie pop musician Nick Currie (aka Momus) compared rockism to the international art movement Stuckism, which holds that artists who do not paint or sculpt are not true artists.

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